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Iran Nuclear Deal: European Countries Join Hands to Form Dispute Mechanism

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Iran Nuclear Deal

Lately, Iran nuclear deal of 2015 has attracted much attention from the global leaders, many of whom have been favouring Iran for the same aspect, while others are actively triggering a dispute mechanism to confront the country.

Not only that, the confirmation of the countering move initiated by Britain, France, and Germany on Tuesday, has brought in the collapsing concerns of the deal. The decision from three countries being the European signatories of the Iran nuclear deal, came hours after Prime Minister Boris Johnson called for a new “Trump deal” if the JCPOA no longer worked.

For a long time, Iran nuclear deal also known as the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, has disputed Iran’s relations with many first world countries, with top involvement from the US. The US President, Donald Trump’s “maximum pressure” sanctions on Iran, was although ignored by the three European countries.

While negotiating the nuclear deal alongside the US, China, and Russia, the aim of the three European countries has long been to halt Iran’s growing nuclear programme without pressurising and pushing the country towards sanctions.

JCPOA, thereby was one good setup framed to limit Iran’s quantity and degree to enrich uranium. However, the sanctions on Iran that the European countries tried to disburden, have always remained, weakening its economy.  

Recently, Iran pulled away from its commitments under the deal and ignored all the attempts to bring it back. The European countries saw the move as a counter attack to the US’ withdrawal from the deal in 2018.

On many occasions, Iran has refused to return to the agreement, as the US promised to impose more sanctions to put an end to the future threats of nuclear war. With tensions continuing to escalate, the European countries are left with the only option of registering their concerns under the JCPOA norms so that the matter gets referred to the Joint Commission under the Dispute Resolution Mechanism.

The negotiating signatory countries will then have 15 days to resolve the triggering dispute of the Iran nuclear deal. If the proposed plan fails, then any of the participating country could refer the issue to the countries’ foreign affairs ministers, who would again have 15 days to discuss and find a resolution.

If the issue persists after the given 30 days, it will then be elevated to the JCPOA Advisory Board, which would have five days to negotiate. If not solved through this means, complaining signatory country can treat the issue as “grounds to cease performing its commitments under this JCPOA in whole or in part,” and/or refer it to the UN Security Council.

The US, Russia, China, Britain, and France will sit on the council to find a resolution within 30 days to continue with sanctions relief on Iran. If no resolution is adopted, then all previous sanctions on Iran would be re-imposed.

It appears that the attempts made to comply the Iranian government to follow the footprints and demands of the US have largely brought in the situations against them. The question is whether or not the signatory European countries would be able to rebuke the sanctions strategy, while limiting the nuclear programs of Iran.

If not, could the initiative of a constructive diplomatic dialogue amongst the signatories save the Iran nuclear deal. Amid the ongoing conflicts, Iran is now liable to choose one of the two paths, either it would take steps to de-escalate tensions and adhere to the basic rules of international law, or become politically and economically isolated.  

Considering the tensions, the Royal Navy also directed a nuclear-powered submarine in the international waters earlier, as a necessary precaution to strike Iran if needed.

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Davos 2020: Greta, Trump Open Debate of Economy and Sustainability

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Davos 2020: Greta, Trump Open Debate of Economy and Sustainability

Davos 2020 brings silent rivals, Greta and Trump, together!

Globe’s biggest elite businessmen gathering, the World Economic Forum is back in Davos, Switzerland. The 50th annual meet up in the Swiss Alps convened the honchos of politics and business on January 21, to enlighten the panel on the theme “Stakeholders for a Cohesive and Sustainable World”.

The opening day of Davos 2020 passed under the dominance of cold rivals — the US President Donald Trump and the climate activist Greta Thunberg. The teenage activist gave a grim message stating that everybody is talking about climate change, but no one is taking any action.

However, President Trump attacked her climate crisis warnings, stating that the world should stop listening to “prophets of doom”. Like never before, the two didn’t meet face-to-face at the WEF too, leaving the global business leaders in a dilemma about who they were referring to.

The annual gathering was largely seen as a billionaires’ stadium, where the rich debated. However, Greta Thunberg’s appearance on the first day of Davos 2020 signalled relevance of global warming in business circles, but only few leaders from the chiefly responsible industries were present at the panel.

Although corporate executives boast of their increasing concerns about the environment, Thunberg stated that none of it is enough. “The climate and environment is a hot topic right now, thanks to young people pushing,” the 17-year-old said at the Swiss ski resort on Tuesday. “Pretty much nothing has been done, since the global emissions of CO2 have not reduced.”

Politicians from the left, the right and the centre, all have failed in striving sustainability, she said. “No political ideology or economic structure has managed to tackle the climate and environmental emergency and create a cohesive and sustainable world.”

The Swedish environmental activist also mocked the US President’s claim that his concern for environment could be seen as he supported the initiative of planting 1tn trees. “Planting trees is good, of course, but it’s nowhere near enough, and it cannot replace real mitigation and re-wilding nature. We don’t need to lower emissions. Emissions need to stop,” she argued.

Greta Thunberg’s alarming words at Davos 2020 shouted of the climate crisis and demanded immediate resolutions. “We don’t want it done in 2050, 2030, or even 2021, we want it done now,” she stated.

However, Donald Trump said that it is “a time for optimism” and “not a time for pessimism”. As Greta watched from the audience, Trump continued, “We must reject the perennial prophets of doom and their predictions of the apocalypse. They are the heirs of yesterday’s foolish fortune tellers.”

The Greta-Trump visible and unspoken clash first came to light, when the teenage activist was filmed staring furiously at Trump in September 2019 at the United Nations.

Besides, shortly after Greta was named person of the year by Time magazine in December, Trump tweeted, “Greta must work on her anger management problem, then go to a good old fashioned movie with a friend! Chill Greta, Chill!”

In response, the Swedish activist changed her Twitter biography to, “A teenager working on her anger management problem.”

While Davos 2020 saw steaming debates over climate issue on the very first day, a lot is due to come on the three-day annual gathering. After Greta, hundreds of other climate activists are due to arrive on foot at the ski resort. The activists, who “are tired of empty promises”, will reportedly stage a demonstration calling for the end of the World Economic Forum.

It’s another year of the businessmen and politicians get together, where the debates and networking is the key agenda of the leaders. The President of world’s one of the most influential countries, Trump was seen boasting of America’s growth record.

On its 50th anniversary, Davos certainly is expected to see a transformation, where the youth fighting for climate will be launching endless questions at the leaders.

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Coronavirus Introduces its Latest Version in China Creating Havoc

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Coronavirus

Last updated on January 24th, 2020

China will soon be entering a new year, but with an unfamiliar coronavirus spreading amongst people. With the Lunar New Year holiday approaching, the period of the largest global annual migration of people is being accompanied this time by a threat of sickness and deaths.

Known as 2019-nCoV, the pneumonia-like coronavirus has spread from Wuhan to several Chinese provinces, as well as the US, Hong Kong, Thailand, Japan, Taiwan, the Philippines, Macau and South Korea. Besides, a total of 570 sickened people have been confirmed, while 17 died.

Citing the outbreak, Chinese authorities earlier urged people to avoid travelling in and out of the city with a population of 11 million, Wuhan. “Basically, do not go to Wuhan. And those in Wuhan please do not leave the city,” said National Health Commission vice-minister Li Bin.

Transportation, including all flights and passenger train services out of Wuhan would be stopped from Thursday, said officials. While bus, subway and ferry services would also be shut down. A special command centre in Wuhan said that the move was meant to “resolutely contain the momentum of the epidemic spreading”.

This week, Beijing reported that human-to-human transmission of the virus had taken place. It is understood to be a latest in line of coronavirus, which has never been identified in humans. The signs of infections have been reported to include fever, cough, respiratory symptoms, shortness of breath and breathing difficulties.

The authorities admitted that the country was now at the “most critical stage” of prevention and control. However, the World Health Organization (WHO) on Wednesday announced that it will not yet declare the outbreak a “global emergency”.

Global emergency declaration by the WHO is the highest level of alarm, which has previously been tagged with swine flu, Zika virus and Ebola. After a day of discussions in Geneva, Director General Dr. Tedros Ghebreyesus stated that the declaration would be required about the spread of the coronavirus.

According to the reports, the committee of health experts is scheduled to meet again on Thursday.

The outbreak has become a greater challenge because of the Lunar New Year, a week long holiday to begin on January 25. The Chinese government had estimated that the country’s people would be making around three billion trips during the holiday period. The huge flux of travel is expected to make it more difficult for the country to contain this unknown version of coronavirus.

Despite the difficulties, the authorities — not alone in China but also in other countries — are striving their best to control the consequences and their spread. Several nations have put checkpoints at airports to examine travellers from China. While the virus is still unfamiliar, people are only being requested to be extra careful.

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Qatar’s migrant labor issues do not appear changing anytime soon

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Qatar’s migrant labor issues not ending sooner

Qatar, on January 16, removed exit restrictions for mostly all migrant workers in a move to avoid exploitation upbraid before the 2022 FIFA World Cup.

Earlier migrants, majorly from India, Nepal and the Philippines, sought exit permit from their employers before leaving Qatar, which was largely seen as a right abuse.

The new reform has been hailed by the expatriate population in Qatar as they believe it is a significant step towards abolishing the infamous Kafala System in the country.

The Gulf nation is expecting a major boost in its economy and infrastructure during the 2022 FIFA World Cup, hence the authorities are going all out to create a modern setup that protects expats working across different sectors.

Previously, Qatar exempted a number of foreign migrant workers, falling under specific categories, from exit visas. The country’s working-class population, including domestic workers, the oil and gas sector, agriculture sector, government and public institution staff, and personnel employed at sea were not entitled to the reform.

However, the obligation to obtain exit permit is applicable to members of the armed forces, and for a handful of workers holding higher position in companies.

Under the new policy, Qatar migrant workers are required to inform their employers at least 72 hours prior to leaving the country.

Rothna Begum, women’s rights researcher at Human Rights Watch said, “Qatar has taken an important step to eliminate a tool of control that employers sometimes used to exploit workers and keep them entrapped in abusive situations.”

According to a government statement, “Employers have the right to identify a maximum of 5% of their workforce whose exit from Qatar will continue to require prior approval.”

The HRW raised a concern that if domestic workers were required to inform employers about their plan to leave might prove problematical for workers trying to escape abusive or exploitative situations.

The government has also listed penalties for foreign domestic workers, such as, imposing a four-year ban on re-entering Qatar and a deprivation of wages, in case they fail to inform their employers before leaving.

Right workers from Amnesty International have expressed dilemma over Qatar’s new reform as the call to relieve the worker of their duties still remains with the employer. The new reform looks promising but is not enough to ensure the welfare of workers as it has other implications that subdue its real impact.

After Qatar‘s announcement to abolish exit permit system, Saudi Arabia remains the only Gulf nation to still enforce the obligation on its migrant workers.

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Avidity of World Leaders for Oil Export Brings Forth Libyan Ceasefire

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Libyan ceasefire

As the situations in Libya grew intense, the world leaders from nearly 11 countries united in Germany, on Sunday, to reach an agreement. Pushing for Libyan ceasefire, while simultaneously enforcing the arms embargo on the warring parties, became a major goal of the meeting.

The Berlin summit became a means to discuss over the increased violence in Libya, a result of the power struggle between the political parties. In addition, Libyan territory and oil became the two major factors that over the time have played an important role in the rival conflicts.

As known, the initial Libyan conflict started with the death of the deposed Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi, who was captured by National Transitional Council forces in 2011 and killed afterwards. The forces claimed that he died from the injuries sustained in a firefight when loyalist forces attempted to free him, but a graphic video of his last moments portrayed a different scenario.

Gaddafi’s death led to a political crisis in Libya, which was followed by the power struggle between the House of Representatives government also known as the Tobruk government, elected in 2014, and the rival General National Congress government based in the capital Tripoli. Even with the influx of foreign arms and fighters, the crisis is yet not resolved.

The government headed by Prime Minister Fayez Sarraj in Tripoli is highly recognized by the UN and backed by Turkey, Qatar and Italy, while the eastern government run by Gen. Khalifa Haftar is recognized by Russia, Egypt, France and the United Arab Emirates. The fact that different countries are supporting different governments has only given way to additional tensions in Libya.

On Friday, several tribal groups loyal to Haftar seized large oil export terminals along Libya’s eastern coast as well as southern oil fields, challenging the Tripoli government. The move reflects the severity of the situations in Libya. It together called upon the need of the world leaders to unite in the Berlin summit, bringing in the negotiations to end the conflict.  

In the four-hour discussion, the world countries consisting of US State Secretary Mike Pompeo, Russian President Vladimir Putin, Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, French President Emmanuel Macron, Italian Premier Giuseppe Conte and British Prime Minister Boris Johnson argued upon the ways to alleviate the Libyan conflict.

The leaders together decided to respect the arms embargo by strongly controlling it. Ceasing the operations by halting support to the warring side was altogether a step towards bringing in the Libyan ceasefire deal.

Voicing the success of the summit, German Chancellor Angela Merkel said, “We had to succeed in getting all the parties that connected in any way with the Libya conflict to speak with one voice… We achieved this result here.”

Meanwhile, both the disputed Libyan leaders have named five military representatives for committee talks on a permanent cease-fire to be held in Geneva. Though the present agreement did not cite specific punishments for the ones violating the Libyan ceasefire, it would definitely put pressure on the parties to reach a full ceasefire deal.  

Johnson called Libyan crisis a huge “disgrace” at the Berlin Summit. He added that the UK could send peacekeepers if a real ceasefire emerges. He even asked the Russian and Turkish Presidents to stop the practice of backing different governments and instead together support the process of attaining Libyan ceasefire.

Since, oil is one of the major factors in Libya, most of the conflicts have generally arisen through the rivals seizing oil export terminals. In the same manner, lack of oil export is another factor that has bounded the world countries to resolve the ongoing civil war in Libya. Had it not been for the oil exports that could be suppressed due to the ongoing Libyan conflicts, the world countries would have stuck around and carefully watched the entire scenario, rather than actively pushing for the Libyan ceasefire.

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Al-Shabab Claims Deadly Suicide Car Bombing in Somalia

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Al-Shabab Claims Deadly Suicide Car Bombing in Somalia

In a matter of 20 days, the country in East Africa witnessed another attack that took lives of civilians and wounded several others. According to authorities, the suicide car bombing in Somalia wounded 15 others, on Saturday. Local police officer Abdirahman Adan informed that at least four people were killed.

“A speeding suicide car bomb rammed into a place where the Turkish engineers and Somali police were having lunch,” stated another police officer Nur Ali.

“So far, we know three Turkish engineers and their translator were injured,” he said. “Two other policemen were injured in the blast.”

Officials confirmed that people injured in the Somalia bombing near the town of Afgoye in southwest of Mogadishu, included Somali nationals and Turkish engineers working on a road in the area.

Turkey’s Health Minister Fahrettin Koca stated that six Turkish employees of a construction firm and nine Somali citizens were wounded. Two of the wounded Turkish citizens were in critical condition and undergoing surgery at the Mogadishu Recep Tayyip Erdogan hospital. “Four of the nine Somali wounded are in a serious condition. We are in contact with our embassy,” he added.

Residents described that it was a massive explosion followed by “clouds of smoke”. A witness stated that “several Turkish engineers and well-armed convoy of Somali police” were present at the scene before the blast.

Another said, “The blast was huge, it destroyed a container used by the Turkish engineers who work on the Afgoye road construction.”

The Turkish Ministry of National Defense decried the Somalia bombing attack, and wrote on Twitter, “We curse and condemn in the strongest terms the bomb terror attack which targeted innocent civilians in Somalia.”

Somalia bombing on Saturday was claimed by the Somali insurgents linked to al-Qaeda, al-Shabab, on their media outlet Radio Andalus. “We are behind the martyrdom of the suicide car bomb in Afgoye,” said Abdiasis Abu Musab, spokesman for the group. “We targeted the Turkish men and the Somali forces with them. There are casualties of death and injuries.”

Al-Shabab has been battling for supremacy in the Horn of Africa country for years. Saturday’s car bombing attack in Somalia is the latest in a string of attacks by the armed group, which in recent weeks has increased activity in Somalia and neighboring Kenya.

On December 28, al-Shabab’s massive car bombing attack killed at least 78 people and wounded 149 more at a checkpoint in Mogadishu. In another attack on January 5, the group stormed a military base used by US forces in Kenya’s coastal Lamu region and killed three Americans.

Last week, the al-Shabab group also warned that Kenya will “never be safe”, threatening tourists and calling for more attacks on US interests. Both Kenya and the US forces have been assisting the Somali government in its fight against al-Shabab.

With al-Shabab’s activity speeding up in the two countries, no relief is in sight to the civilian deaths.

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